The Ink

The text was written in iron gall ink, made from the gall, or fruit, of the oak tree. It would have originally been black, but has faded to brown over time. The scribe did not dip his quill frequently enough while writing, so the ink fades as the line continues to the right. This can be seen most clearly at the end of a line, where the faded ink contrasts with the deeper ink.

Text fading towards end of line. It then appears darker again, showing that the scribe dipped his quill.

Faded Ink

The ink fades as the scribe writes, creating a contrast when he continues with a freshly dipped quill.


Cluster of oak galls on a branch.

Oak Gall

The gall, or fruit, of the oak tree, which was combined with iron sulfate to make ink.